Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa and one of the most emerging economy derives its name from river Niger. Nigeria is witnessing a rapid population growth with its existing population being over 144 million increasing at 3.2% per annum. Kaduna city capital of Kaduna state originally created by the colonial powers was military and administrative headquarters .Kaduna is very strategically located in the centre of the country and Kaduna state, is a major trade centre for surrounding agricultural area and enjoys a good connectivity through road connecting Kano and Abuja. With the exponential growth of the country’s economy and population and Kaduna being one of the only two cities in Kaduna state, it bears load of huge number of people migrating in search of jobs and new opportunities. The city is polarized on religious grounds with Muslims on the north and Christians in the south.
The commercial and city centre developed over the time period reflects ribbon development along major road running north to south, Kaduna river has provided a natural barrier for the city to extend in east whereas army land has provided a boundary towards north.
The citys growth has been along the two axis provided along the two major roads with Kaduna bridge acting as main connecting element over the river. New airport to the north of city provides a new connectivity and opportunities.
The overall development of city is mid to low density low rise development with very few existing major road networks leading to an organic pattern branches of streets. The central part of the city originally planned by colonial powers remains as low density settlement restricted by the river on the east.
The main aim of this spatial planning report on Kaduna city is to explore key issues affecting the City and to anticipate the sustainable and feasible future urban development needs for the Kaduna city in next 25 years or so. The visions and recommendation are also intended to be practically adoptable and implementable considering the vital facts of Kaduna being a fast growing city of a developing country with majority of immigrant’s arriving to the city being semi-skilled to un-skilled.
The report is based on the medium to high density sustainable growth of Kaduna City with a consideration of the population increase from approximately 1.5 million(UN, 2011) to approximately 3.0 million by 2050 (according to the estimate of Max Lock Centre, 2006).
The main objectives of the proposed sustainable spatial plan for Kaduna city are; 1) To recommend medium and long term physical development on the basis of analysis of economic and social requirements of the City. 2) To propose adequate allocation of land use for residential, commercial, retail, industrial, and public spaces for a sustainable, workable and liveable environments. 3) To provide adequate and comprehensive housing spaces for newly arrived 60,000 immigrants of various ethnic and religious backgrounds in a common neighbourhood. 4) To propose the development of efficient transportation and infrastructure facilities for expanding city and provide space for any new addition of infrastructure in future. 5) To enhance and protect the existing natural and built assets like fadma land, Textile industry, rail tracts etc.
1.To create a well connected road network grid, expansion of roads within occupied area and their connection with new proposed road to form an efficient intercity road network. 2.To create boundaries for city and plan development in phases, The immediate phase should aim at controlling informal unorganized development by laying down strategies for pockets within existing infrastructure ready for immediate development. 3.Create high density pockets in land available in existing development to attain optimum density for efficiency for transportation and other services. 4.Revival of existing city centres by providing them better connectivity with other city centres, revival of roads even expansion for future. 5.Create new nodal points to act as hub of mix land use activities. 6.Revival of fadma land along with river as major green lung to the city and taking advantage of its central location. 7.Central park on the eastern side of river along with attached proposed commercial belt to act as major starting point for development and expansion of city towards eastern side. 8.Development of underdeveloped area into residential township complete with all services. 9.Reorganizing existing recreational area like polo grounds and stadiums. 10.Lay emphasis on organized public transport system
The main purpose of planning is to manage change, this is not valuing free and so planning must be for people and must be more inclusive. Planning is most effective at the local level, in partnership and over short time horizons Unlike architecture, urbanism is in constant change therefore, whether a new city is planned or has emerged, or existing cities are re-developed, residents of the cities have benefited from the use of more imaginable city elements and clearer form.
From the analysis and study we have concluded that the city can be evolved in a Polycentric way by considering its size, infrastructure and the urban and natural environment. The city government and the central government should be more co-operative and must function in more coherent way so that the framework of the city can be laid in right way, unfortunately which is not the case in most of the “third world”.
Lastly, Kaduna’s Planning system needs a revival, planning is to be undertaken by the professional and competent planners, there must be a participation of public. Planning is necessary; sometimes the results are immediately obvious on other occasion they take longer time to appreciate; planning can improve the environment or help reduce the impact of changes of this great city.